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In the text
More than one citation in the same parentheses
It is possible to include more than one reference in the same parentheses. Sort them alphabetically and separate them by semicolons.
(Gaudreault et al., 2011; Killi, 2014; Müllersdorf & Ivarsson, 2012)
If you cite several sources by the same author in the same parentheses you don’t need to repeat the name of the author.
(Killi, 2011, 2014)
More than one reference by the same author(s) with the same date
Different references by the same author with the same date are distinguished with letters after the date. The letters are included every time the references occur in the text and in the reference list.
Koriat (2008a) shows ...
For references with several authors, the same date and the same first author you should name as many authors as necessary to distinguish the references. This applies every time the references are used.
(Protudjer, Jansson, Heibert Arnlind, et al., 2015)
(Protudjer, Jansson, Östblom, et al., 2015)
If there are more authors than those you mention, use et al. Please note that since the meaning of et al. is ”and others” you can’t use it in the place of one single author. If only one author remains after you have included as many as necessary, name this last author too.
If you use several references by the same group of authors, mentioned in the same order and published the same year, you should distinguish them by adding letters after the publication year.
(Polit & Beck, 2012a)
(Polit & Beck, 2012b)
Different authors with the same surname
If you cite references by different authors with the same surname, distinguish them by including the initials of their given names in the text.
(M. Andersson, 2014)
M. Andersson (2014) describes ...
(Y. Andersson, 2012)
According to Y. Andersson (2012) ...
If you quote a source, you should include the page(s) where the quotation is found in the source. This information is added after the date. Use the abbreviation p. for pages. It is possible to specify pages even if you do not quote. This might for example be relevant if you discuss or comment a specific paragraph and want to make it easier for the reader to find that paragraph.
(Rodriguez, 2014, p. 97)
If you use quotations from a source that lack pagination you need to give other information to specify where the quotation is found. One possibility is to use chapter, section or paragraph.
(Mattson, 2012, para. 3)
(Boussard, 2010, Chapter 1)
Citing the same source several times
If you cite the same source several times in the same paragraph, the date in parentheses only needs to be included the first time. In the subsequent citations it is enough to name the author(s) in the sentence - you can skip the date in parentheses. However, if you use the parenthetical form of the citation with both the author(s) and the date in parentheses, the date should always be included.
If you use the reference in the next paragraph too, you need to repeat the date in that paragraph.
The reference list
Arrange the references in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. If the list contains several first authors with the same surname, the references are sorted by the given name initial.
References with only one author precede references with several authors and the same first author. References with several authors and the same first author are sorted by the second author. If the second author is the same too, the third is used for the sorting, and so on.
Sources by the same single author or the same group of authors mentioned in the same order are arranged chronologically with the oldest reference first. Sources with the same date by the same author(s) are sorted alphabetically by the title. For these references a distinguishing letter is added after the year. The first article is a, the second b and so on. The distinguishing letters are part of the in-text citations too.
Koriat, A. (2008a). Easy comes, easy goes? The link between learning and remembering and its exploitation in metacognition. Memory & Cognition, 36, 416–428. doi:10.3758/MC.36.2.416
Koriat, A. (2008b). Subjective confidence in one’s answers: The consensuality principle. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 945–959. doi:10.1037/0278-73220.127.116.115
The same sorting rules apply to books with editors and organisations as authors too. References that lack both author and editor are sorted alphabetically by title.
Lund, A. (2011)
Lund, A. (Ed.) (2013)
Lund, A. (2015a)
Lund, A. (2015b)
Lund, A., & Yan, R. (2014)
Lund, A., Yan, R., & Johansson, P. (2013)
Lund, A., & Östman, A. (2014)
Lund University (2010)
Lund, V. (2015)
Lundström, S. (2011)